Emotional/Interpersonal Neurobiology has discovered that we share 7 primitive emotional systems with animals that allow us to feel Connectedness, Pleasure, Play, Assertiveness and that can (self- or externally) generate feelings of (Self-)Care and Safety but due to circumstances (complex & developmental trauma/c-PTSD, personality disorders) these emotion systems can become disorganized and overwhelming.
This causes us to rely on primitive defenses like idealization, anger, dissociation/numbing, devaluation, clinging, addictions, eating disorders while developing anxiety and low self-esteem because you lack proper representations of the world due to impaired "mentalizing" or "mindsight", which means interpreting other people's needs, desires, feelings, beliefs, goals, purposes and reasons behind their actions (in simple terms, "making sense of eachother and ourselves) (attachment theory, self-other objects, relations theory).
"When we differentiate and link aspects of a complex system, we enable the natural self-organization of that system to move toward harmony. When either differentiation or linkage are hampered, the result is an impediment to self-organization in the form of chaos, rigidity, or both." - Daniel J. Siegel
Through integrating Emotional Neuroscience, researchers are now discovering that our primitive emotional systems are the key to balancing emotional instability and healing complex & developmental trauma (c-PTSD, BPD, Bipolar etc). This process of integration starts with us becoming aware and choosing to focus our energy and attention and becoming internal generators of the positive emotions like our Value, Self-Worth, Assertiveness, Motivation, Care and Safety systems through training them like muscles which in parallel will downregulate the negative and even traumatic emotions, this, together with our intentional focused attention and awareness training we are able to organize and create Fail-Safe brain networks (Panksepp, 2012, 2018. Sheldon, 2022).
"In addition to arriving at emotions, therapists also need to help clients leave certain painful emotions by activating new adaptive emotions that help change the old emotions. Clients need to consolidate their experiential change in new narratives consisting of new views of self and world (Greenberg, 2011).
This process of accepting emotion and changing emotion with emotion as well as creating new narratives involves understanding different types of emotions and principles of emotional change. The best way to change an emotion is with an opposing emotion." - Leslie S. Greenberg
EMIN ™: Advancing Mental Health Education and Research on Complex Trauma, BPD, Self-Harm, Suicidality, Anorexia, Eating Disorders, and c-PTSD with Unbiased, Evidence-Based Content and Full Disclosure of Our Editorial and Financial Independence
About EMIN ™
EMIN ™ is an independent research and education platform dedicated to providing high-quality, unbiased, and clinically-relevant information on specific mental health issues. Our content is peer-reviewed and based on the latest empirical evidence from reputable scientific sources, and we are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) and the American Psychological Association (APA), ensuring that our educational material meets rigorous quality standards.
EMIN ™'s mission is to advance mental health education and research by providing practical tools for healthcare professionals and clients working with complex mental disorders, including Complex Trauma, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Self-Harm, Suicidality, Anorexia, Eating Disorders, and Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (c-PTSD). We integrate the latest evidence-based science of Neurobiology into clinical practice, education, and research, and our platform is designed to support healthcare professionals in their practice, education, and research.
Editorial and Financial Independence
EMIN ™ maintains a strict policy of editorial independence, and we have no commercial medical conflicts of interest. Our revenue is generated solely from providing educational materials, and we do not endorse or promote any commercial products or services. Our team is made up of experienced researchers and medical specialists who are dedicated to providing high-quality, unbiased information on complex mental health issues.
1. "Is borderline personality a particularly right hemispheric disorder? A study of P3a using single trial analysis.
Russell Meares, Allan Schore, Dmitriy Melkonian.
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 45 (2)" (https://journals.sagepub.com/doi /abs/10.3109/00048674.2010.497476)
2. "Internal Family Systems (IFS) Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among Survivors of Multiple Childhood Trauma: A Pilot Effectiveness Study.
Hilary B Hodgdon, Frank G Anderson, Elizabeth Southwell, Wendy Hrubec, Richard Schwartz.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 1-22, 2022" (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi /full/10.1080/10926771.2021.2013375)
3. "Borderline Personality Disorder, Impulsivity, and the Orbitofrontal Cortex
Heather A. Berlin, D.Phil., M.P.H., Edmund T. Rolls, D.Phil., D.Sc., and Susan D. Iversen, Ph.D., Sc.D. American Journal of Psychiatry
. 2005 Dec;162(12):2360-7" (https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi /full/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.12.2360)
4. "Dissociation vs repression: A new neuropsychoanalytic model for psychopathology.
The American Journal of Psychoanalysis 81 (1), 82-111, 2021" (https://link.springer.com/article /10.1057 /s11231-021-09279-x)
5. "Organizing Awareness and Increasing Emotion Regulation: Revising Chair Work in Emotion-Focused Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder
Alberta E. Pos and Leslie S. Greenberg. Journal of Personality DisordersVol. 26, No. 1" (https://guilfordjournals.com/doi /10.1521/pedi.2012.26.1.84)
6. "Impact of Mindfulness Training on Borderline Personality Disorder: A Randomized Trial
Matilde Elices, Juan C. Pascual, Maria J. Portella, Albert Feliu-Soler, Ana Martín-Blanco, Cristina Carmona & Joaquim Soler
Mindfulness volume 7, pages584–595 (2016)" (https://link.springer.com/article /10.1007/s12671-016-0492-1)
7. "The Role of Mindfulness in Borderline Personality Disorder Features. Wupperman, Peggilee PhD; Neumann, Craig S. PhD; Whitman, Jeannie B. PhD; Axelrod, Seth R. PhD; The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: October 2009 - Volume 197 - Issue 10 - p 766-771" (https://journals.lww.com/jonmd /Abstract/2009/10000 /The_Role_of_Mindfulness_in_Borderline_Personality.9.aspx)
8. "Mindfulness skills in borderline personality disorder patients during dialectical behavior therapy: Preliminary results
Nader Perroud,Rosetta Nicastro,Françoise Jermann &Philippe Huguelet. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Volume 16, 2012 - Issue 3" (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi /full/10.3109/13651501.2012.674531)
9. "Modern Attachment Theory: The Central Role of Affect Regulation in Development and Treatment
Judith R. Schore & Allan N. Schore.
Clinical Social Work Journal volume 36, pages9–20 (2008)" (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10615-007-0111-7)
10. "Emotion-Focused Principles for Working with Borderline Personality Disorder
WARWAR, SERINE H. PhD, C Psych; LINKS, PAUL S. MD; GREENBERG, LESLIE PhD, C Psych; BERGMANS, YVONNE MSW, RSW.
Journal of Psychiatric Practice: March 2008 - Volume 14 - Issue 2 - p 94-104" (https://journals.lww.com/practicalpsychiatry /Abstract/2008/03000 /Emotion_Focused_Principles_for_Working_with.4.aspx)
11. "A developmental, mentalization-based approach to the understanding and treatment of borderline personality disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 21(4), 1355-1381. Fonagy, P., & Luyten, P. (2009)." (doi:10.1017/S0954579409990198)
12. "Attachment Studies with Borderline Patients: A Review, Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12:2, 94-104. Hans R. Agrawal, John Gunderson, Bjarne M. Holmes & Karlen Lyons-Ruth (2004)" (DOI: 10.1080/ 10673220490447218)
13. "What Works in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Curr Behav Neurosci Rep 4, 21–30 (2017). Choi-Kain, L.W., Finch, E.F., Masland, S.R. et al." (https://doi.org/10.1007/s40473-017-0103-z)
14. "The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health. Infant Ment. Health J., 22: 201-269. Schore, A.N. (2001)" (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002 /1097-0355(200101/04)22:1%3C201::AID-IMHJ8%3E3.0.CO;2-9)